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Ethiopia

Taux de mariages d'enfants
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 15 ans
14%
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans
40%
Classement international*

15

* Références

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

Photo credit: Ashenafi Tibebe | Girls Not Brides

Taux de mariages d'enfants
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 15 ans
14%
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans
40%
Classement international*

15

* Références

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

What's the child marriage rate? How big of an issue is child marriage?

40% of girls in Ethiopia are married before the age of 18 and 14% are married before their 15th birthday.

According to UNICEF, Ethiopia has the 15th highest prevalence rate of child marriage in the world and the fifth highest absolute number of child brides – 2,104,000.

The lowest median ages of marriage are in Afar and Amhara.

A 2017 World Bank study shows that ending child marriage in Ethiopia could generate USD1581.4 million in earnings and productivity.

Are there country-specific drivers of child marriage in this country?

Child marriage is driven by gender inequality and the belief that girls are somehow inferior to boys. In Ethiopia, child marriage is also driven by:

What has this country committed to?

Ethiopia has committed to eliminate child, early and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals. During its Voluntary National Review at the 2017 High Level Political Forum, the government highlighted that its Women and Policy strategies address the elimination of child marriage.

Ethiopia co-sponsored the 2017 Human Rights Council resolution recognising the need to address child, early and forced marriage in humanitarian contexts, and the 2015 Human Rights Council resolution to end child, early and forced marriage, recognising that it is a violation of human rights.

Ethiopia co-sponsored the 2013 and 2014 UN General Assembly resolutions on child, early and forced marriage, and also co-sponsored the 2013 Human Rights Council resolution on child, early and forced marriage. In 2014, Ethiopia signed a joint statement at the Human Rights Council calling for a resolution on child marriage.

Ethiopia acceded to the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1991, which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18, and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1981, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.

Ethiopia is a focus country of the UNICEF-UNFPA Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage, a multi-donor, multi-stakeholder programme working across 12 countries over four years.

In 2002 Ethiopia ratified the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, including Article 21 regarding the prohibition of child marriage.

In 2004 Ethiopia signed, but has not yet ratified, the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, including Article 6 which sets the minimum age for marriage as 18.

Ethiopia is one of 20 countries which has committed to ending child marriage by the end of 2020 under the Ministerial Commitment on comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people in Eastern and Southern Africa.

During its 2014 Universal Periodic Review, Ethiopia supported recommendations to address deeply-rooted child marriage practices.

At the Girl Summit in July 2014, the government signed a charter committing to end child marriage by 2020.

What is the government doing to address this at the national level?

The National Alliance to End Child Marriage in Ethiopia by 2025 was spearheaded by the Ministry of Children, Women and Youth Affairs to identify the drivers of child marriage across Ethiopia and to locate examples of best practice.

The first ever Ethiopian Girl Summit took place in Addis Ababa in June 2015. The government reiterated commitments to eliminate child marriage by 2025 and a representative from the Inter Religious Council stated that child marriage cannot be justified through religion.

The National Strategy and Action Plan on Harmful Traditional Practices against Women and Children in Ethiopia was launched in 2013.

A National Harmful Traditional Practices Platform was established to institutionalise and measure progress towards eliminating child marriage by 2025.

Ethiopia’s National Action Plan for Gender Equality 2006-2010 acknowledges the problems caused by child marriage and its link to school dropout rates. It proposes sensitising communities to the dangers of marrying young.

The UK Department for International Development provides funding to the Finote Hiwot programme, which aims to end child marriage for at least 37,000 adolescent girls in the East and West Gojam Zones of the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

The Dutch-funded Yes, I Do Alliance and Her Choice Alliance both address issues driving child marriage in Ethiopia.

The Ethiopian Women Lawyers Association educates community leaders, law enforcement agencies and judicial bodies on Ethiopia’s revised Family Law, and provides legal aid and shelter to girls who escape child marriage.

What is the minimum legal framework around marriage?

The revised Family Code 2000 sets 18 years as the minimum legal age of marriage. However, the Minister of Justice may grant dispensation for individuals to marry at 16 years upon application by themselves or their parents/guardians.

Girls often also marry before 18 years in religious and customary marriages.

Source

African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, [website], 2018, (accessed February 2018)

African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, [website], 2018, (accessed February 2018)

Central Statistical Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2016, 2017, (accessed March 2018)

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, The 2017 Voluntary National Reviews on SDGs of Ethiopia: Government Commitments, National Ownership and Performance Trends, 2017,(accessed April 2018)

Girl Summit 2014, The Girl Summit Charter on Ending FGM and Child, Early and Forced Marriage, [website], 2015, (accessed February 2018)

International Center for Research on Women and CARE, Improving the Lives of Married Adolescent Girls in Amhara, Ethiopia A Summary of the Evidence, 2016, (accessed March 2018)

Ministerial Commitment on comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people in Eastern and Southern Africa [website], 2014, (accessed February 2018)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Joint statement on child, early and forced marriage, HRC 27, Agenda Item 3, [website], 2014, (accessed April 2018)

Ministry of Women’s Affairs, NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR GENDER EQUALITY (NAP-GE) 2006-2010, 2006, (accessed April 2018)

Ministry of Women, Children and Youth Affairs, National Strategy and Action Plan on Harmful Traditional Practices (HTPs) against Women and Children in Ethiopia, 2013, (accessed April 2018)

Ortiz-Echevarria, Greley, Bawoke, Zimmerman, Robinson and Schlecht, Understanding the unique experiences, perspectives and sexual and reproductive health needs of very young adolescents: Somali refugees in Ethiopia, 2017, (accessed March 2018)

Population Council, Berhane Hewan Project in Amhara, evaluation, 2011, (accessed April 2018)

Population Council, Delaying early marriage among disadvantaged rural girls in Amhara, Ethiopia, through social support, education, and community awareness, 2011, (accessed March 2018)

Population Council, Early Marriage, Marital Relations and Intimate Partner Violence in Ethiopia, 2013, (accessed March 2018)

UNICEF, National Girls Summit, Keynote Address, 2015, (accessed April 2018)

UNICEF, Surprising trends in child marriage in Ethiopia, 2016, (accessed March 2018)

UNICEF Ethiopia, UNICEF and UNFPA to speed up their efforts to end the violent practice of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C), 2018, [website], 2018, (accessed April 2018)

UN General Assembly, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Ethiopia, 2014, p.17, (accessed April 2018)

United Nations, Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, [website], 2017, (accessed February 2018)

World Bank and International Center for Research on Women, Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Global Synthesis Report, 2017, (accessed March 2018)

Young Lives, Child Marriage and Female Circumcision (FGM/C): Evidence from Ethiopia, 2014, (accessed March 2018)

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.