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Kazakhstan

Taux de mariages d'enfants
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 15 ans
n/a
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans
7%

* Références

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

Taux de mariages d'enfants
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 15 ans
n/a
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans
7%

* Références

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

What's the child marriage rate? How big of an issue is child marriage?

7% of girls in Kazakhstan are married before their 18th birthday.

Child marriage is most prevalent in Zhambyl, Pavlodar and North Kazakhstan, where 11% of women aged 20-49 were married before the age of 18.

Reliable statistics are only available for formally registered marriages and do not include informal or religious unions that take place.

Are there country-specific drivers of child marriage in this country?

Child marriage is driven by gender inequality and the belief that women and girls are somehow inferior to men and boys. In Kazakhstan, child marriage is also driven by:

  • Level of education:27% of women with lower secondary education were married before the age of 18, compared to only 3% with higher education.
  • Poverty: Girls in Kazakhstan’s poorest households are twice more likely to marry before the age of 18 than those in the richest households.
  • Ethnicity: Child marriages are more common among Russian and other minority groups rather than majority Kazakhs. This is often due to less awareness on sexual and reproductive health and more tolerant attitudes towards pre-marital sex, cohabitation and informal unions.
  • Power dynamics: 40% of currently married 15-19 year old girls have a spouse who is between five and nine years older than them, suggesting a high value placed on young girls.

Gender norms: In districts with high ethnic minority communities, including Turks, Uighurs and Dungans, stereotypes regarding women’s subordinate status and the practice of bride price drives some families to marry off their daughters.

What has this country committed to?

Kazakhstan has committed to eliminate child, early and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals. The government did not provide an update on progress towards this target during its Voluntary National Review at the 2019 High Level Political Forum.

Kazakhstan co-sponsored the 2013 and 2014 UN General Assembly resolutions on child, early and forced marriage, and signed a joint statement at the 2014 Human Rights Council calling for a resolution on child marriage.

Kazakhstan ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1994, which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18, and acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1998, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.

During its 2019 review, the CEDAW Committee expressed concerns about the high prevalence of child marriage, especially unregistered religious marriages, and bride kidnapping. The Committee recommended Kazakhstan to intensify its efforts to prevent and eliminate these practices, ban the religious registration of marriages of girls under the age of 18 years, and strengthen awareness-raising campaigns.

During its 2014 Universal Periodic Review, Kazakhstan supported recommendations to address child marriage by encouraging girls to continue education beyond secondary level, and establishing laws to eliminate the practice.

During its 2019 Universal Periodic Review, Kazakhstan agreed to review recommendations to strengthen their efforts to protect children from all forms of violence, including sexual violence and child, early and forced marriage.

What is the minimum legal framework around marriage?

Under the Marriage and Family Code 2011, the minimum legal age of marriage is 18 years. 

However civil registration authorities can marry individuals at 16 years in cases of pregnancy or bearing a child, with the agreement of those entering the marriage and that of their parents or guardians.

Source

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of Kazakhstan, 2019, p. 16 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fKAZ%2fCO%2f5&Lang=en (accessed March 2020).

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Joint statement on child, early and forced marriage, HRC 27, Agenda Item 3, [website], 2014, http://fngeneve.um.dk/en/aboutus/statements/newsdisplaypage/?newsid=6371ad93-8fb0-4c35-b186-820fa996d379 (accessed March 2020).

The Statistics Committee of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2015 Kazakhstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Final Report, 2016, https://mics-surveys-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/MICS5/Europe%20and%20Central%20Asia/Kazakhstan/2015/Final/Kazakhstan%202015%20MICS_English.pdf (accessed March 2020).

UNFPA, Child marriage in Kazakhstan (Overview), 2014, http://eeca.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/unfpa%20kazakhstan%20overview.pdf (accessed March 2020).

UN General Assembly, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Kazakhstan, 2014, p.16, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/KZindex.aspx (accessed March 2020).

UN General Assembly, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, Kazakhstan, 2019, p. 23, https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/KZindex.aspx (accessed March 2020).

United Nations, Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, [website], 2017, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg5 (accessed March 2020).

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.