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Zimbabwe

Taux de mariages d'enfants
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 15 ans
4%
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans
32%

* Références

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

Photo credit: DFID

Taux de mariages d'enfants
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 15 ans
4%
UNICEF 2017 % mariées avant l’âge de 18 ans
32%

* Références

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

What's the child marriage rate? How big of an issue is child marriage?

32% of girls in Zimbabwe are married before the age of 18 and 4% are married before their 15th birthday.

The lowest median ages of marriage are in Mashonaland Central and Mashonaland West.

Are there country-specific drivers of child marriage in this country?

Child marriage is driven by gender inequality and the belief that girls are somehow inferior to boys. In Zimbabwe, child marriage is also driven by:

What has this country committed to?

Zimbabwe has committed to eliminate child, early and forced marriage by 2030 in line with target 5.3 of the Sustainable Development Goals. During its Voluntary National Review at the 2017 High Level Political Forum, the government reaffirmed commitment to this target, highlighting that the Constitutional Court outlawed the marriage of people under 18 in 2016.

Zimbabwe co-sponsored the 2017 Human Rights Council resolution recognising the need to address child, early and forced marriage in humanitarian contexts.

In 2014 Zimbabwe signed a joint statement at the Human Rights Council calling for a resolution on child marriage.

Zimbabwe ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990, which sets a minimum age of marriage of 18, and acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1991, which obligates states to ensure free and full consent to marriage.

In 2015 Zimbabwe launched the African Union Campaign to End Child Marriage in Africa. A National Action Plan and Communication Strategy is now being developed.

In 1995 Zimbabwe ratified the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, including Article 21 regarding the prohibition of child marriage.

In 2008 Zimbabwe ratified the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, including Article 6 which sets the minimum age for marriage as 18.

Zimbabwe is one of 20 countries which has committed to ending child marriage by the end of 2020 under the Ministerial Commitment on comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people in Eastern and Southern Africa.

During its 2016 Universal Periodic Review, Zimbabwe supported recommendations to address the exclusion of women in the economic, social and political sphere, with specific attention to child marriage.

In 2016 the UN Child Rights Committee urged Zimbabwe to establish an effective monitoring system to assess progress towards ending child marriage. It also recommended the government provide survivors with compensation and rehabilitation and conduct an investigation into the alleged involvement of members of religious sects in facilitating child marriage.

What is the government doing to address this at the national level?

Zimbabwe’s National Gender Policy was revised in 2017 and now includes components on addressing child marriage.

A draft National Action Plan to End Child Marriage is also in development.

What is the minimum legal framework around marriage?

In 2016 Zimbabwe’s Constitutional Court outlawed child marriage, so that no one may enter into any marriage before the age of 18. The ruling includes marriages under the Customary Marriages Act which had previously not had a minimum age requirement.

Source

African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, [website], 2018, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/child/ratification (accessed February 2018)

African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, [website], 2018, http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/ (accessed February 2018)

African Union, Campaign to End Child Marriage in Africa: Call to Action, 2013,
https://au.int/sites/default/files/pages/32905-file-campaign_to_end_child_marriage_in_africa_call_for_action-_english.pdf (accessed February 2018)

Government of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Voluntary National Review (VNR) of SDGs
For the High Level Political Forum, 2017,
https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15866Zimbabwe.pdf (accessed April 2018)

Human Rights Watch, Zimbabwe: Scourge of Child Marriage, [website], 2015,
https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/11/25/zimbabwe-scourge-child-marriage (accessed April 2018)

Ministerial Commitment on comprehensive sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents and young people in Eastern and Southern African, [website], 2014, http://youngpeopletoday.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/ESA-Commitment-FINAL-Affirmed-on-7th-December.pdf (accessed February 2018)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Joint statement on child, early and forced marriage, HRC 27, Agenda Item 3, [website], 2014,
http://fngeneve.um.dk/en/aboutus/statements/newsdisplaypage/?newsid=6371ad93-8fb0-4c35-b186-820fa996d379 (accessed April 2018)

The Zimbabwean, Give us books not husbands, [website], 2014, http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2014/08/give-us-books-not-husbands/ (accessed April 2018)

The Zimbabwean, ROOTS launches ‘Not Ripe for Marriage’ campaign, [website], 2014, http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2014/08/roots-launches-not-ripe-for/ (accessed April 2018)

UNDP Zimbabwe, New National Gender Policy is Launched, [website], 2017, http://www.zw.undp.org/content/zimbabwe/en/home/presscenter/articles/2017/07/06/milestone-as-new-national-gender-policy-is-launched0.html (accessed April 2018)

UN Child Rights Committee, Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Zimbabwe, 2016, p.11, http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/ZWE/CO/2&Lang=En (accessed April 2018)

UN General Assembly, Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Zimbabwe, 2016, p.16, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/ZWIndex.aspx (accessed April 2018)

United Nations, Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, [website], 2017, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg5 (accessed February 2018)

Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency and ICF International, Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey 2015: Final Report, 2016,
https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR322/FR322.pdf (accessed April 2018)

Fait référence au pourcentage de femmes âgées de 20 à 24 ans qui ont été mariées ou en concubinage avant le l’âge de 15 ou 18 ans.

Membres Zimbabwe